Kendall L.Krug, OD PA

Better Vision for Better Living

Macula Risk PGx

Macula Risk PGx is a combined prognostic and pharmacogenetic DNA test designed to determine a patient's risk of progression to advanced Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and aid in the selection of appropriate eye vitamins for AMD based on his or her individual genetic risk profile.


Test Components

Clinical Exam


Non-Genetic Risk Factors

  • AMD Status

  • 15 Genetic Markers Across 12 AMD-Associated Genes

  • Age

  • BMI

  • Smoking History

  • Education

Advanced AMD Prognosis

Macula Risk PGx predicts a patient's risk of progression to advanced AMD with vision loss within 2, 5 and 10 years. Validated risk determinations of two large and independent populations show test sensitivity and specificity each greater than 80% and a 10-year predictive accuracy of 89.5%.

Genotype-Directed Eye Vitamin Formulations

The Vita Risk pharmacogenetic result within the Macula Risk PGx test supports the selection of appropriate eye vitamin formulations for a patient based on their combined genotype at the CFH and ARMS2 loci. A pharmacogenetic analysis of AREDS concluded  that 49% of patients with moderate disease in at least one eye would derive greater benefit from a treatment regimen other than the AREDS formulation.


Genotype-directed eye vitamin formulations more than double the reduction in AMD progression rate compared to treatment with the AREDS formulation.


AREDS Formulation

Genotype-Directed Eye Vitamin Formulation

Early Detection of Advanced AMD

Appropriate Eye Vitamin Formulation

Optimized Patient Outcomes

Macula Risk PGx and Vita Risk

The prognostic component of the Macula Risk PGx test will calculate your individual risk of progressing to advanced disease with vision loss within 2, 5 and 10 years by analyzing the complete combination of your AMD genes and important non-genetic risk factors; age, smoking history, Body Mass Index (BMI), and AMD status. An eye examination is essential to obtaining the Macula Risk PGx score.


The pharmacogenetic component of the Macula Risk PGx test is called Vita Risk and is available as part of Macula Risk PGx, or as a stand-alone test. Test results will help your doctor prescribe the safest and most effective eye vitamin formulation for you based on your genetic profile. This is now referred to as Personalized Medicine.

Understanding the Macula Risk (MR) Score


The 10-year risk of progression places the patient in one of the 5 Macula Risk categories which can be used by the doctor to assess increased risk, and to customize a disease-management program suited to the patient's individual needs. The Macula Risk (MR) score will range

from MR1 - Less than 5% risk of progression to advanced AMD within 10 years

to      MR5 - 60 - 90% risk of progression to advanced AMD within 10 years.

Patients Who Are At Increased Risk May Benefit From:

  • Treatment with personalized preventive eye supplements

  • An increased frequency of eye examinations

  • Disease education and 'at-home' Amsler Grid testing

  • Early diagnosing and treatment of 'Wet" AMD with effective therapies

  • Other disease management strategies as determined by the doctor

Changing The Way We Look At Eye Vitamins

The US National Eye Institute has conducted two long-term Age-Related Eye Disease Studies (AREDS and AREDS2) showing that specific high-dose eye vitamin formulations including antioxidants (vitamins C and E) and zinc can protect a significant number of patients from developing advanced AMD.

Which Eye Vitamin Formulation is Right For You?

The Answer Is Found In The Vita Risk Result

In a recent genetic analysis of the 12-year AREDS data, researchers investigated whether a patient's specific AMD genes influenced the safety and efficancy of ingredients in these high-dose formulations.


They found that different components in these eye formulations are good for some, but bad for others. For example, in patients with specific AMD risk genes, zinc provided the most protective effect; but in patients with other AMD risk genes, zinc actually could cause harm and accelerate vision loss. Similar effects were seen in patients with other genes who were treated with high-dose vitamins C and E.


Using Vita Risk allows the doctor to provide you with the optimal vitamin formulation to reduce your risk for vision loss.

To Patients:

If you are taking eye vitamins for AMD or you think that you or your family members may be at risk for AMD, talk to your eye doctor and discuss whether Macula Risk PGx or Vita Risk is right for you.

Understanding AMD: Who Is At Risk?

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is predominantly an inherited disease and the leading cause of severe vision loss in people over age 50. It is a progressive disease that can destroy central vision, impairing the ability to perform everyday tasks such as reading, driving or watching television.

Do You Want To Know?

Most people do not know they have AMD until they start to lose central vision in one eye. Vision loss can happen quickly and without warning. You do want to know and so does your doctor. With current treatments AMD may be arrested and in some cases improved. The proper eye supplement determined by your personal gene profile and frequent monitoring by your eye doctor are recommended for 'at risk' patients.


A number of factors are shown to increase the risk of developing AMD. Your genetic profile can account for over 60% of this risk, so having a first-degree relative (mother, father, brother, sister) with AMD may significantly increase your risk of developing the disease. In addition to genetics, lifestyle factors like smoking, nutrition, weight and age also play a role in the progression to advanced AMD.

What Is Macula Risk PGx?

Macula Risk PGx is a combined prognostic and pharmacogentic DNA test intended for patients who have a diagnosis of early or intermediate AMD. The test is a simple cheek swab taken in your eye doctor's office. Your doctor will order this test to determine:

1. Your risk of progression to advanced AMD with vision loss.

2. Personalized treatment for maximum preservation of your vision based on your genetic profile.